This GCHQ research report dated 20 September 2011, cowritten by researchers at Heilbronn Institute for Mathematical Research based at the University of Bristol, concerns the use of data mining techniques to develop usable intelligence as well as the contradictions that arise from the use of algorithms to identify wrong doers, or potential wrong doers. The paper also provides a great deal of background information on GCHQ operations and the detailed discussion of network theory demonstrates the power of metadata collection: see the Boing Boing article Doxxing Sherlock, 2 February 2016.
This GCHQ presentation from July 2011 discusses various technical aspects of “population-scale” datamining: see the Intercept article Profiled: From Radio to Porn, British Spies Track Web Users’ Online Identities, 25 September 2015.
This undated presentation from the NSA’s European Cryptologic Center explains some of the activities of the agency’s main European base: see the Der Spiegel article Terrorverdächtige: NSA nutzte Erkenntnisse aus Deutschland-Filiale für Tötungen, 15 June 2014.
This three-page memo is an internal guide to the NSA’s Boundless Informant tool, which allows the agency’s Global Access Operations to assess its collection capabilities by means of metadata record counts: see the Guardian article Boundless Informant: the NSA’s secret tool to track global surveillance data, 8 June 2013.
These slides, taken from a presentation dated 13 July 2012, outline some of the features of Boundless Informant, a tool used to describe the capabilities of the NSA unit called Global Access Operations (GAO): see the Guardian article Boundless Informant: the NSA’s secret tool to track global surveillance data, 8 June 2013.